Dietary Curcuma longa protects myocardium against isoproterenol induced hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological alternations in rats

I R Mohanty, D S Arya, S K Gupta

Abstract


Summary: The present study was designed to investigate whether Curcuma longa (Cl), a natural herb, would attenuate the acute myocardial infarction in isoproterenol (ISP)-treated rat model via maintaining cardiac function and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Haemodynamic parameters {systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular (LV) peak positive (+) dP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative  (-) dP/dt (rate of pressure decline)}were recorded. Cardiac marker enzyme: Creatinine phosphokinase(CPK) and antioxidative parameters: Glutathione (GSH), Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) of heart tissues were measured. Histopathological examination of heart tissues was also performed.  Induction of rats with ISP (85 mg/kg) on 29th and 30th day, s.c. resulted in significant cardiac necrosis, decline in cardiac function, antioxidant status and elevation in lipid peroxidation. Oral administration of Cl (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively) to healthy experimental animals (i.e. animals without any myocardial pathologic challenge viz. ISP) for 30 days significantly enhanced the basal myocardial levels of GSHPx (p<0.05), CAT (p<0.05) activity as compared to the sham group. Subsequent to ISP induced myocardial injury, Cl (100 & 200 mg/kg) pre-treatment for 30 days, resulted in significant mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced biochemical {SOD (p<0.05), CAT(p<0.05), GSHPx(0.05), TBARS (p<0.05), CPK (p<0.05)}, hemodynamic {MAP(p<0.05),, LVEDP(p<0.05)} and histopathological perturbations. Cl (100 mg/kg) was found to be the optimum cardioprotective dose. The results indicate that chronic Cl administration causes myocardial adaptation by augmenting endogenous antioxidants and protects rat hearts from decline in cardiac function and oxidative stress associated with ISP induced myocardial injury.

 

Industrial relevance: Nature has been a source of medicinal treatments for thousands of years and plant-derived products continue to play an essential role in the primary health care of about 80-85 % of the world’s population. Hence, these herbal extracts traditionally used have been evaluated scientifically in the present study with an aim to define the role of these agents in limiting the deleterious affects of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by providing scientific data to validate their use as prophylactic approaches or as an adjunct to standard treatment (synthetic compounds employed in conventional treatment protocols) of ischemic heart disease.

In terms of utilization by the pharmaceutical companies, research outcomes of this project may play a vital role in the development of new class of drugs that work in concert with the body's own defenses and have fewer side effects.


Keywords


Medicinal herbs; Curcuma longa; isoprenaline; antioxidants; myocardial infarction; Rats; Vitamin E

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