Quantitation of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and in vitro Haemostatic Activities of Malaysian Trigona itama propolis

Abuzar Mahmoud Elnager, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Wan Zaidah Abdullah


Summary. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a major natural bioactive phenolic compound derived from propolis, honey and plants. This study aimed to quantitate the CAPE compound in local Trigona bee propolis (Malaysian Trigona itama) and poplar propolis and also to determine the in vitro fibrinolytic, antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities of these two types of propolis. CAPE quantitation was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The fibrinolytic activity was assessed by whole blood (WB) clot lysis procedure and thromboelastrography (TEG) assay. Platelet activity study was performed using platelet aggregometry and TEG assay. Propolis  incubated in whole blood samples at different concentrations were tested and analyzed according to the above methods. GC-MS analysis showed the quantity of CAPE mean (SD) in poplar 29.7 (1.2) mg/g were approximately 50 times higher compared to T.itama (0.6 (0.1) mg/g). Overall, the mean D-dimer (DD) and LY30 parameter (derived from TEG test) showed significant different between normal controls and samples, indicating presence of increased fibrinolytic activity in both types of propolis. Anti platelet effect was seen using both methods. This study suggests that propolis possesses fibrinolytic and antiplatelet activities by in vitro methods. Further investigation on propolis as potential alternative haemostatic agent is recommended in future.



Industrial relevance. Medical illness has been a major concern to the entire community, and among many of the cases, thrombotic diseases are the top of the list. The interest in natural products as alternate agent has increased tremendously due to their broader pharmacological activities with less adverse effects. Propolis, a naturally occurring resinous substance, is a potential alternative treatment has been widely used for medicinal purposes due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The use of propolis to prevent or treat thrombotic diseases has not been explored. No study has been done to investigate the haemostatic effects of propolis. Therefore, a preliminary study on haemostatic activities of local and poplar propolis was conducted. This study found propolis has anti platelet and fibrinolytic properties by in vitro methods, therefore a potential agent for thrombotic diseases. We recommend future related studies to be done to confirm the haemostatic activities of propolis by in vivo studies.

Keywords. in vitro; haemostatic activities; T.itama; propolis



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